Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of coordinating the information that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage and distribution to application programs and users making changes as needed, monitoring changes in the data and preventing it from becoming corrupted due to unexpected failures. It’s a component of an organization’s overall informational infrastructure, which supports decision-making and corporate growth, as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed the storage and retrieve massive amounts of data for a broad range of purposes, from calculating inventory to supporting complex human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records, and also allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that provide information about the entities that comprise the data. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are among the most popular database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also simpler to update data since it doesn’t require the modification of various databases.

Most DBMSs support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level addresses costs, scalability, and other operational issues such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of various external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are constructed from generic data to improve performance.

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